/etc/mail/aliases /etc/mail/aliases.dir /etc/mail/aliases.pag ~/.forward
These files contain mail addresses or aliases, recognized by sendmail.1m for the local host:
In addition, the NIS name services aliases map mail.aliases, and the NIS+ mail_aliases table, both contain addresses and aliases available for use across the network.
Each local username is listed in the local host's /etc/passwd file.
Messages addressed to the absolute pathname of a file are appended to that file.
If the first character of the address is a vertical bar, (|), sendmail.1m pipes the message to the standard input of the command the bar precedes.
If domain does not contain any `.' (dots), then it is interpreted as the name of a host in the current domain. Otherwise, the message is passed to a mailhost that determines how to get to the specified domain. Domains are divided into subdomains separated by dots, with the top-level domain on the right. Top-level domains include:
For example, the full address of John Smith could be:
if he uses the machine named jsmachine at Podunk University.
... [host! ]host!username
These are sometimes mistakenly referred to as ``Usenet'' addresses. uucp.1c provides links to numerous sites throughout the world for the remote copying of files.
Other site-specific forms of addressing can be added by customizing
Standard addresses are recommended.
aliasname is the name of the alias or alias group, and address is the address of a recipient in the group. Aliases can be nested. That is, an address can be the name of another alias group. Because of the way sendmail.1m performs mapping from upper-case to lower-case, an address that is the name of another alias group must not contain any upper-case letters.
Lines beginning with white space are treated as continuation lines for the preceding alias. Lines beginning with # are comments.
An alias of the form:
owner-aliasname : address
directs error-messages resulting from mail to aliasname to address, instead of back to the person who sent the message.
An alias of the form:
with colons as shown, adds the recipients listed in the file pathname to the aliasname alias. This allows a private list to be maintained separately from the aliases file.
client could just mail to
and not have to
remember the machine and username for John Smith.
not resolve to an address with a specific host, then the name of the
domain is used.
There should be an alias of the domain name for a host
in this case.
For example, the alias:
sends mail on a
if the name of the
Care must be taken to avoid creating addressing loops in the
When forwarding mail between machines, be sure that the destination
machine does not return the mail to the sender through
the operation of any
Otherwise, copies of
the message may ``bounce.''
Usually, the solution is to change the
alias to direct mail to the proper destination.
A backslash before a username inhibits further aliasing. For instance, to invoke the vacation program, user js creates a ~/.forward file that contains the line:
\js, "|/usr/ucb/vacation js"
so that one copy of the message is sent to the user, and another is piped into the vacation program.
Created by unroff & hp-tools. © by Hans-Peter Bischof. All Rights Reserved (1997).
Last modified 21/April/97